How does viral structure determine host range and tissue tropism?

How viruses determine host range and tissue tropism?

The attachment of a virus to specific cell surface receptors is a key event in the life cycle of animal viruses. It determines the host range and tropism of infection, and initiates delivery of the genome into the cell.

What determines the tissue tropism of a virus?

Factors influencing viral tissue tropism include: 1) the presence of cellular receptors permitting viral entry, 2) availability of transcription factors involved in viral replication, 3) the molecular nature of the viral tropogen, and 4) the cellular receptors are the proteins found on a cell or viral surface.

What determines host tropism?

Viral host tropism is determined by a combination of susceptibility and permissiveness: a host cell must be both permissive (allow viral replication) and susceptible (possess the receptor complement needed for viral entry) for a virus to establish infection.

What is viral host range?

A virus’ host range is the range of cell types and host species a virus is able to infect.

What determines viral load?

Simply put, viral load is how much of the virus you have in your body. The more the virus has replicated, the higher your viral load will be, and the more infectious you likely are.

What does tissue tropism refer to?

Tropism refers to the ability of a given pathogen to infect a specific location. Organ or tissue tropism reflects the ability of a given pathogen to infect a specific organ or sets of organs.

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What determines the host range of a pathogen?

Host range is determined by different sets of factors, some extrinsic to the pathogen, related to its ecology and epidemiology, and others intrinsic to the pathogen, such as genetic traits that determine its fitness in different hosts.