How does the influenza A virus target a host cell?
When the influenza virus infects a host cell its goal is to produce many copies of itself that go on to attack even more cells. A viral enzyme, called polymerase, is key to this process. It both copies the genetic material of the virus and steers the host cell machinery towards the synthesis of viral proteins.
What does the influenza virus target?
Influenza virus infects respiratory epithelial cells that line the upper (including nasal) through lower (to the alveoli) respiratory tract. A key parameter in determining the extent of associated disease is the degree to which the lower respiratory tract becomes invaded by the virus .
Which characteristic of proteins allows influenza to specifically target its host cells?
The virus has H spikes that are specific to receptors on the surface of the host cell.
How does influenza spread from host to host?
Person to Person
People with flu can spread it to others up to about 6 feet away. Most experts think that flu viruses spread mainly by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.
How does influenza A infect cells?
Influenza viruses bind to receptors containing sialic acid on the cell surface. Virus particles are then endocytosed and enter early endosomes. Subsequently the viruses are trafficked to late endosomes where the low pH triggers viral fusion.
How does the influenza virus work?
The virus is inhaled or transmitted, usually via your fingers, to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose or eyes. It then travels down the respiratory tract and binds to epithelial cells lining the lung airways via specific molecules on the cell surface.
What does influenza do to the respiratory system?
The flu is a virus that infects your upper respiratory tract (throat, sinuses) and it can also infect your lower respiratory tract (lungs). When the virus infects your lungs, your body tries to fight the infection. But, if the infection is hard to clear up you may develop viral pneumonia.
What is the pathophysiology of influenza virus?
The primary mechanism of influenza pathophysiology is a result of lung inflammation and compromise caused by direct viral infection of the respiratory epithelium, combined with the effects of lung inflammation caused by immune responses recruited to handle the spreading virus (Table 1).
What is the causative agent of influenza?
What Causes the Flu? The flu is caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. These viruses spread when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk, sending droplets with the virus into the air and potentially into the mouths or noses of people who are nearby.