How do bacterial pathogens penetrate host defenses quizlet?

How do bacteria penetrate the host?

Bacteria are much larger than viruses, and they are too large to be taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Instead, they enter host cells through phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of bacteria is a normal function of macrophages.

What is an example of a strategy a bacterial cell may use to evade the host defenses quizlet?

Bacteria use a variety of virulence factors to evade phagocytosis by cells of the immune system. For example, many bacteria produce capsules, which are used in adhesion but also aid in immune evasion by preventing ingestion by phagocytes.

How do pathogens evade host defenses?

Bacteria are multifaceted in their methods used to escape immune detection. They employ tactics such as modulating their cell surfaces, releasing proteins to inhibit or degrade host immune factors, or even mimicking host molecules.

What are some ways that pathogens can penetrate mucosa?

Contact with these microorganisms may occur through external or internal epithelial surfaces: the respiratory tract mucosa provides a route of entry for airborne microorganisms, the gastrointestinal mucosa for microorganisms in food and water; insect bites and wounds allow micro-organisms to penetrate the skin; and …

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How do pathogens enter the host and establish an infection?

Entering the Human Host

Microorganisms capable of causing disease—pathogens—usually enter our bodies through the mouth, eyes, nose, or urogenital openings, or through wounds or bites that breach the skin barrier. Organisms can spread—or be transmitted—by several routes.

What is host defense in microbiology?

Host defenses are composed of two complementary, frequently interacting systems: (1) innate (nonspecific) defenses, which protect against microorganisms in general; and (2) adaptive (specific) immunity, which protects against a particular microorganism.

What is the relationship between host and pathogen?

Some bacteria, such as H. pylori, can secrete toxins into the surrounding tissues, resulting in cell death or inhibition of normal tissue function. Viruses, however, use a completely different mechanism to cause disease. Upon entry into the host, they can do one of two things.

Which help helps bacteria resist host cell defenses by preventing phagocytosis?

The pili (fimbriae) of Streptococcus pyogenes both blocks the activation of the complement pathways on the bacterial cell wall and helps to resist phagocytic engulfment.

How does Mycobacterium tuberculosis evade the immune system?

An analysis and summary of the reviewed bibliography was made. Development: Mycobacterium tuberculosis manages to evade the immune response of the host through three fundamental mechanisms: arrest or arrest of the phagosome-lysosome fusion; resistance against the reactive metabolites of nitrogen and nitric oxide; and